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Archive for the ‘How Tos’ Category

by Tom Nelson

Originally introduced with OS X El Capitan, System Integrity Protection, usually referred to as SIP, is a security feature built into the Mac operating system that’s designed to protect most system locations, system processes, and Kernel extensions from being written to, modified, or replaced.

SIP and related security protections in the Mac operating system have undergone changes with each release of the OS, but the basics of how the SIP system works have remained the same, including how SIP can be enabled, disabled, and have its current status checked on.

Rootless, More or Less
OS X El Capitan was the first version of the Mac operating system to incorporate SIP, as well as the idea that the Mac operating system was now rootless; that is, there was no longer a root account, the all-powerful primary account that had access to almost the entire system. But it turns out the concept of the Mac being rootless was more of a security marketing gimmick than actual fact. There was still a root account; the difference is that when enabled, SIP poses additional restrictions on the root account, walling off certain portions of the system from access by an account with root level privileges.

The additional isolation of system components from accounts with root privileges helps to prevent malware from being able to gain access to the system, where it could embed itself and take advantage of all of the system services running on a Mac.

System Integrity Protection (SIP)
While “rootless” was mostly marketing, SIP actually hardened the Mac by preventing modifications to the following locations:

  • /System
  • /usr
  • /bin
  • /sbin
  • All apps preinstalled by Apple

The exceptions to the rule are apps or processes that have been signed by Apple and have special entitlement to write to system files. This includes Apple installers and Apple software update services.

SIP is effective at stopping system locations from being written to by third-party apps and services. Only Apple-signed system processes can write to system locations.

System processes can’t be attached to. This prevents code injection or runtime attachment to system processes, techniques often used by malware to force privileged processes to run the malware code.

Kernel extensions must be signed with an Apple Developer ID that specifically allows for signed Kext (kernel extensions) certificates. This can prevent kernel extensions from being replaced or modified by malware, as well as prevent new unsigned kernel extensions from being installed.

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by Tom Nelson

The Mac, and for that matter most computing platforms, are just chock full of daemons. Daemons, not to be confused with demons, are usually small programs that run in the background with no direct interaction with the computer user. They are often used to implement or help provide a service that operating systems or applications need.

The word daemon comes from an ancient Greek belief, and is used to describe a supernatural being that works on tasks between the gods and man. If we replace man with computer user, and gods with the operating system or applications, we get a reasonable idea of what all these Mac daemons are doing: performing repetitive tasks that provide a service to the operating system, an app, or the user.

Activity Monitor and Daemons
Daemons have no visible interface; they run in the background and are usually independent of other apps and programs. That makes them hard for the user to directly interact with, or even know they’re present. But without them, your Mac would likely grind to a halt or freeze up, possibly without even displaying the usual spinning beach ball of doom.

For the most part, daemons should be left alone; they’re perfectly happy performing their assigned tasks. But if you’re curious, you can use Activity Monitor, an app included with the Mac, to see how the various daemons, and other programs that are running, are making use of your Mac’s resources.

In this example, we’re going to use Activity Monitor to look at what two common Mac daemons are up to: “cfprefsd” and “cloudd.” We chose these two daemons because there have been a few questions floating around the Internet about what they do, as well as questions about these daemons using excessive resources.

You may notice that our two daemons have names that end with a “d.” This is a developer convention, where all daemons’ names should end with a “d.” Just as important, the rest of the daemon name should loosely describe its function. If we apply this developer logic to our two example daemons we come up with:

cfprefsd: A background process (a daemon because of the d at the end of the name) having something to do with cfprefs. Scratching our heads a bit, we can guess that this daemon has something to do with preferences, and if we knew a bit more about Mac development, we could guess the cf stood for Core Foundation.

Using the “man” command in Terminal allows you to see a description of what the daemon’s function is. [Press the “q” key to quit from the man page.] Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

Actually, we cheated a bit and used the Terminal app to tell us what cfprefsd was. You can use this trick with most of the daemons that are spawned by the operating system to discover what function they serve.

Launch Terminal, located at /Applications/Utilities, and enter the following at the Terminal prompt:

man cfprefsd

Terminal will tell us that, “cfprefsd provides preference services for the CFPreferences and NSUserDefaults APIs.” If we wanted to find out more, we could look up CFPreferences and NSUserDefaults in Apple Developer documentation. Essentially, cfprefsd helps an app or the system to read or write to preference files. When you open an app and change one of its preferences, it’s likely that cfprefsd is the daemon being asked to make the changes to the app’s preference file.

cloudd: A daemon having something to do with macOS cloud services. A little more investigating using Terminal and the technique we outlined above tells us that this is the daemon used by CloudKit, a developer’s API used to transfer data between an app and Apple’s iCloud service.

To check on this daemon’s activity, launch Activity Monitor, located at /Applications/Utilities.

When the Activity Monitor window opens, we’re going to be interested in the resources each daemon is making use of.

In the Activity Monitor window, select the CPU button in the toolbar.

You’ll see a long list of processes running on your Mac. You may notice a few daemons, processes whose names end with d, present in the list. But you probably won’t see cfprefsd or cloudd unless you scroll around a bit to find them. An easy way to see each daemon is to enter one of their names in the Search field in the top right corner of the Activity Monitor window.

For this example, enter cfprefsd in the search field.

Activity Monitor will list any matching process names that are running. You may see multiple daemons with the same name, indicating that multiple users (system, user, or other apps and processes) are making use of the daemon. In my case, I have three copies of the cfprefsd daemon running; one that my logged-in user is using, one the root user is using, and one that locationd (another daemon) is using.

Use the Activity Monitor search field to isolate the daemon you are looking for. Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

The most important columns in Activity Monitor to examine are the %CPU and Threads columns. In this example, there is 0 CPU being used by any of the cfprefsd daemons, and only two threads in use.

If the %CPU or Threads count were high, and stayed high for a long period, that could indicate a problem with the daemon, or more likely, the app or process that is using it.

Select the Memory button in the Activity Monitor window.

Daemons generally do not use a great deal of memory for long periods of time. They can certainly need memory resources while actively performing their tasks, but usually for short durations. If you see a large amount of memory in use by a daemon, and it stays that way for a long period of time, you may have an issue with the app or process that is using the daemon.

Clear Activity Monitor’s search field to see the full list of active processes. Or, you can enter the name cloudd to view the resources being used to support iCloud.

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by Tom Nelson

Disk Utility, the macOS Swiss Army knife for working with disks and storage volumes, may have a few blades missing, especially when it comes to working with unformatted drives and unused space on a disk or storage volume.

In versions of Disk Utility that came with OS X Yosemite and earlier, you could enable hidden debug modes in the Disk Utility app that allowed you to see and interact with all the space on a disk, including hidden elements, such as the Recovery volume or the secret EFI partitions.

In this Rocket Yard article, we’re going to look at how to enable Disk Utility to view and work with the types of disk spaces you’re likely to encounter, including:

We’ll also demonstrate how to use Terminal to access the remaining hidden disk structures that Disk Utility can’t view directly, including:

  • Recovery volumes
  • EFI volumes
  • Preboot and Boot volumes

Selecting the Initialize button will open Disk Utility, but the disk may not show up if the apps view settings are in the default settings. Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

Using Disk Utility to Access All Devices
Disk Utility is configured by default to only show formatted volumes. This makes using Disk Utility with existing volumes an easy task since there are only a few, and sometimes only one, volumes displayed, cutting down on what could be an overwhelming list of disks, containers, volumes, RAID slices, etc.

The disadvantage, however, is that it can make it difficult to work with new unformatted disks you may be using for the first time. This includes working with unformatted drives as well as unformatted USB flash drives.

Tip: When we speak of unformatted drives, we’re including any disk that uses a format that your Mac can’t natively work with.

Disk Utility lets you pick which display mode to work in: Volumes only, All Devices, or only a selected drive. You can switch between them at any time, and Disk Utility will update the display immediately; no need to close and reopen the Disk Utility app or restart your Mac.

Show All Devices
This setting will display all storage devices connected directly to your Mac. In addition to each device being displayed, a hierarchical listing will show how each device is organized, i.e., how many containers, partitions, or volumes each device contains. Absent from the hierarchical view will be any of the items Apple has decided to hide from the end user, such as EFI volumes and Recovery volumes.

When Disk Utility’s view option is set to Show All Devices even unformatted devices will be present in the sidebar, such as the highlighted USB flash drive that needs to be formatted. Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

From the Disk Utility toolbar, click the View button, and then select the Show All Devices item from the dropdown menu. You can also select Show All Devices from Disk Utility’s View menu.

The Sidebar will change to display all locally connected devices, presented in a hierarchical view starting with the physical device, than any containers and volumes the device may have been partitioned into.

Hide the Sidebar
For the ultimate in simplicity, you can choose to hide the sidebar and remove any listings of devices or volumes from view.

From the Disk Utility toolbar, click the View button and select the Hide Sidebar item in the dropdown menu. You can also select Hide Sidebar from Disk Utility’s View menu.

The sidebar will close, and the last selected item in the sidebar will become the only item listed in the Disk Utility window.

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by Tom Nelson

You may not have heard of rsync; it’s a file transfer and synchronization program that’s often used to create elaborate and complex backup systems.

Written for Unix operating systems, rsync is included with the Mac and can be accessed directly from Terminal, or used within a number of scripting languages.

The rsync program has a number of features that make it a good candidate for building local, as well as remote, backup, archiving, and synchronization systems. It can also be used for basic file copying, and for maintaining file synchronization between one or more folders, either locally or with a remote system (think cloud-based storage, as an example).

In this Rocket Yard Guide, we’re going to concentrate on using rsync locally. If you wish to use rsync with a remote system, you’ll need to ensure that both the local system and the remote system have rsync installed.

If you’re looking for a copy of rsync to install on a system other than a Mac, or you’re just interested in discovering more about this versatile app, you can check out the rsync website.

Before we get into details about using rsync on the Mac, a note about versions. The version of rsync that’s distributed with the Mac tends to lag behind the current version available on the rsync website. The Mac version has been at 2.6.9 for a number of years, while the current version is at 3.1.3 (as of January, 2018). You should have no problems using the older Mac version with remote platforms that have one of the newer versions installed, but going the other direction could have unexpected results. Always check version compatibility when using rsync with remote systems.

Using Rsync
The Terminal app is used to invoke rsync and its various commands. If you’re new to using the Terminal app, check out the Rocket Yard series Tech 101: Introduction to the Mac’s Terminal App.

Rsync uses a simple structure for issuing commands:

rsync -options theSourceDirectory theDestinationDirectory
While the number of options can get long, the format is always the same; the rsync command followed by any optional switches, then the source directory followed by the destination directory.

The rsync -r command copied all the files on my Desktop to my USB flash drive named DocsBackup. Notice that the time stamp on all the copied files is set to the current date. Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

Let’s look at a basic rsync command that will copy a directory and all sub-directories it may contain. To tell rsync we want all the files and folders, including everything in subdirectories, we include the -r option. In the Terminal app, enter:

rsync -r /Users/tnelson/Desktop /Volumes/DocsBackup

(Replace tnelson with your user name, and DocsBackup with your desired target for the copy.)

In this example, my messy Desktop folderand its contents will be copied to a USB flash drivenamed DocsBackup. After the command is executed by hitting the return or enter key, the DocsBackup flash drive will have a new folder named Desktop, with all of my Desktop content.

If you want to copy only the contents of the Desktop, and not the parent folder named Desktop, you would add a forward slash after the directory named Desktop, like this:

rsync -r /Users/tnelson/Desktop/ /Volumes/DocsBackup

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by Tom Nelson

Sometime this summer, macOS Mojave will be made available to participants in the Apple Beta Software Program. Since the Beta Software Program is open to anyone who wishes to sign up, it’s easier to think of this as a public beta for anyone whose Mac meets the minimum requirements for using macOS Mojave.

The macOS public betas are very popular with a large number of Mac users anxious to put the latest Mac OS through its paces. To help you get the most out of the betas, the Rocket Yard is lending a helping hand with a collection of macOS Mojave guides.

Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

To pique your interest, we started off with What’s New in macOS Mojave: A First Look at the Developer Beta.

The follow-up article described How to Get Your Mac Ready for the macOS Mojave Beta.

And that leaves this article, which covers how to perform the actual install of the macOS beta.

Developer or Public Beta of Mojave?
Apple developers already have access to the beta of Mojave, and since the public beta isn’t quite available yet, we’re going to base our install guide on the developer version, and then come back and update the guide for any changes that occur when the public beta is released. I don’t expect too much to change between the developer and public beta versions. The usual changes seen in past betas were primarily differences in file names, installer commands, or menu names; there’s rarely a dramatic difference in the actual install process. But be sure and check back; you never know what may happen between now and then.

How Many Ways Are There to Install the macOS Mojave Beta?
More than you might think, but we’re going to look at two primary methods: the upgrade install and the clean install. We’ll also take a look at installing the beta on Parallels, a popular virtual machine app.

  • Upgrade Install: The easiest of the install options. It will upgrade your current version of the macOS to the beta version of Mojave. It will also update all of your Apple apps to the beta Mojave versions, and may also update the document formats of some apps. Because the upgrade install of the beta is an all-or-nothing process, I recommend that you install the beta on a copy/clone of your current startup disk. This will leave your current system intact and usable for your normal daily tasks, and still allow you to test and try out the beta on a different drive, one that contains copies of all your apps and data.
  • Clean Install: This install process creates a pristine copy of the macOS Mojave beta on a target drive. It can completely erase the destination volume and then install a fresh copy of the Mojave beta. I don’t recommend using this install method on your Mac’s normal startup drive since you would lose all your current data. Using the clean install method on an empty external drive is a better option.

Back Up, Please
Before using any of the install methods outlined here, be sure to start the process by making sure you have a current backup of your startup drive, as well as any other drives that contain important information you can’t afford to be without.

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by Tom Nelson

Itching to get your hands on the macOS Mojave beta so you can experience all the new features? There are some very important steps to take before you expose your Mac to any beta software, and when the beta is of a new operating system release, you really should consider building a wall between the beta software and the Mac OS and apps you use daily for work and play.

Before we begin constructing the beta wall, let’s take a moment to look at the macOS Beta programs available to you.

Apple Developer Program
This is probably the best-known method of gaining access to the resources needed to develop for the Mac. If you have a hankering to build an app, develop an extension, or integrate tools with the Mac operating system, the Apple Developer Program is the place to start.

There are various developer memberships levels, from free, which gives you access to documentation, the Xcode developers’ suite, and the Swift programming language, to paid yearly memberships, which include the ability to distribute your applications through the appropriate App Store, as well as access the various operating system and app betas that Apple provides to its developers.

The macOS Mojave beta was made available to developers shortly after the WWDC 2018 keynote speech.

Apple Beta Software Program
Apple also provides betas of its operating systems to the general public through the free Apple Beta Software Program. This program is open to all Apple users willing to sign up for the program and participate by providing feedback on the betas they’re working with.

The public beta releases are expected mid-summer. Sign up now if you wish to participate in any of Apple’s beta programs.

Betas provided through the public Beta Software Program lag slightly behind those given to Apple developers. I’ve always thought of the difference between the two this way: Apple gives the latest beta version to the developers to help find major issues, like a bug that deletes all the files on your startup drive. After a week or so of being in the developers’ hands with no catastrophic bugs showing up, the beta (usually under a slightly different version number) is released through the public beta program.

Having more eyes on the beta operating system through the public release should cause additional bugs and issues to be discovered and reported to Apple. The macOS Mojave public beta is expected to be released mid-summer.

Building the Beta Wall
As noted above, the purpose of betas is to help discover bugs and issues in a beta app. This means that anyone participating in either beta program should expect to encounter problems that could range from a funny misspelling in a menu, to a minor annoyance in how an app works, to system freezes or data loss.

Which brings us to the first rule of working with Apple betas: Never install a beta on your primary computer.

This rule, however, tends to be impractical for most users of a public beta. Many of us don’t have multiple computers, and if we do, we probably don’t have one that we can dedicate for use only with beta software. A more practical approach is to isolate the beta, and keep it from interacting with the startup drive and the data you use daily.

The usual methods to isolate a beta are to install it on an external drive that you can selectively boot from when you wish to work with the beta, or install it on a virtual machine, such as Parallels, that runs the beta as a guest OS, with any interaction with your main Mac being performed through the virtual machine software.

Each method has its advantages. Installing on an external bootable drive allows you to work with the beta in its normal environment; no virtual software performing translations, or pretending to be hardware devices. You experience the beta operating directly on your Mac’s hardware.

The major disadvantage is the inconvenience of having to reboot your Mac whenever you wish to use the beta software.

When you choose to install the beta in a virtual environment, you can work with both the beta and your normal Mac OS at the same time. The disadvantage is the virtual environment is generally slower, especially graphics performance, which can be subpar during the beta phase and even prevent some new OS features from working as intended.

In this article, I’m going to assume you’re installing the beta on an external drive that you will selectively boot from when you want to use the macOS beta. Because the beta install process may also update your drive to APFS, I don’t recommend installing the beta on any current internal drives your Mac may have. I’m not saying to avoid APFS; I just don’t think it’s a good idea to let a beta installer convert a drive that likely contains precious data. It’s far better to dedicate an external drive for use with the macOS beta.

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by Tom Nelson

Disk Utility’s Restore function can be used to copy the content from one volume to another. In this respect, it’s similar to the process of cloning a volume, and indeed, the Restore function can be used to create bootable clones. But if this is your primary reason for using the Restore function, I recommend the use of dedicated cloning apps, such as Carbon Copy Cloner or SuperDuper, that have a great deal more features that are highly serviceable in the cloning process.

The Restore feature can also be used to copy disk images to a target volume, restore an image of your startup volume, or simply copy the content of one volume to another.

We’ve already covered the basics of using the Restore feature for cloning in the Rocket Yard article: Tech Tip: How to Use the Restore Feature of Disk Utility to Clone a Drive.

In this guide, we’re going to look at how Disk Utility’s Restore feature has changed in macOS High Sierra; specifically, the new support for APFS containers and volumes, and how they bring new capabilities as well as limitations to how you restore data from one storage device to another.

When you select a destination volume from the Disk Utility sidebar, you can verify the file system in use on the selected volume by checking the information pane. In this example, the destination volume is formatted with APFS.Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

What Hasn’t Changed in the Disk Utility Restore Function
The basic concept remains the same; you use Disk Utility to select a destination volume from the sidebar, and then choose a source to copy from. Once the copy (Restore) starts, the destination device is unmounted and erased, and the content from the source is copied to the new location. Once the copy is complete, the destination is mounted, and you’re ready to make use of the information.

Restore can also make copies of disk images, as well as just about any device that can be mounted on the Mac’s Desktop. This means you can make copies of just about anything you wish, including creating archives of videos from your camera’s flash drives before you perform any type of edits, creating clones before upgrading an OS or important app, and just as important, being able to return to a known good state should something befall an upgrade.

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by Tom Nelson

Securely wiping a drive, removing all of its data, and ensuring that no meaningful information can be recovered, has long been a feature of Disk Utility and its erase function. Even though the default for Disk Utility is a simple erase, a secure wipe was just a few clicks away.

Two recent changes have made the traditional secure wipe, performed by overwriting a volume multiple times with various types of data patterns, largely a thing of the past. The first change, leading to less reliance on the various secure wipe options, has been the proliferation of SSDs, both as original equipment provided by Apple and by resellers, such as OWC, which bring higher performance storage systems to the Mac.

Using the Security Options to sanitize a volume may be a thing of the past. Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

The second change that directly affects the Mac community, at least in the way free space can be securely erased, is the release of the APFS file system, and how it makes use of shared space between multiple volumes.

In this guide, we’re going to look at erasing volumes, partitions, and containers. We’ll be looking at drives formatted with APFS as well as those formatted with the traditional HFS+ file system. If you’re working with macOS Sierra or earlier, you may find the Rocket Yard Guide: How to Use Mac’s Disk Utility to Securely Wipe a Drive a good source of information for erasing your drives.

We’ll be using the Disk Utility app included with macOS High Sierra and later.

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by Tom Nelson

Disk First Aid, currently part of Disk Utility, has long been the go-to utility for verifying and repairing a Mac’s storage system. Included as a standalone app with the original Mac OS, it was later folded into Disk Utility when OS X was released.

Disk Utility, and its First Aid system remains the first line of defense for drives that are experiencing a number of issues, including:

  • System crashes
  • Files disappearing
  • File sizes changing on their own
  • Inability to copy files
  • Inability to open or save files
  • Startup issues
  • Drives unmounting or ejecting on their own
  • And a host of other errors and issues

In this guide, we’re going to take a look at using Disk Utility’s First Aid tool in macOS High Sierra to repair APFS and HFS+ file systems. First Aid can actually be used on any file system that macOS supports, but APFS and HFS+ are the most popular, and the ones you’re most likely to encounter.

We’ll start by going through the actual process of using First Aid, and then take a more in-depth look at the process; we’ll also provide a few troubleshooting tips.

Before you use First Aid, make sure you have a current backup of the drive or volume you’re having issues with. If you’re using First Aid as part of a routine maintenance program, you should still have a working backup of any volume that you’ll be checking.

The Disk Utility app underwent a few updates with the release of macOS High Sierra to support the APFS file system. If you’re working with OS X El Capitan through macOS Sierra, you may find the instructions in How to Use macOS Sierra Disk Utility to Verify or Repair Disks a better fit.

Disk Utility’s Sidebar in macOS High Sierra and Later
Launch Disk Utility, located at /Applications/Utilities.

Disk Utility’s default settings use a sidebar that only displays storage volumes. Since you may need to use the First Aid tool on volumes as well as partitions, catalogs, and physical devices, it’s a good idea to change the sidebar settings to display all devices.

The View button in Disk Utility’s toolbar will expand the sidebar to show all devices. Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

Click the View button in the Disk Utility toolbar and select Show All Devices from the popup menu, or select Show All Devices from the View menu.

The sidebar will now display all devices, including the physical drive and any APFS containers it may have, as well as any APFS or HFS volumes associated with the physical drive.

The organization of the devices is hierarchical, with the physical drive listed first, using the manufacturer’s name, or the model name or number, or both. At the next level under the physical drive is the Container (APFS file system), followed by the volumes. If this is an HFS-formatted drive, there won’t be any containers under the drive level, just volumes.

Each item can be selected and repaired using the First Aid tool.

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by Tom Nelson

Disk Utility has long been the workhorse of choice for dealing with hard drives, SSDs, and disk images. With the advent of APFS (Apple File System) with macOS High Sierra, Disk Utility acquired some additional capabilities that allow it to work with APFS and its support for containers.

DiskUtilityIcon

We’re going to look at how to use Disk Utility to partition drives into multiple containers, and how to add volumes to containers. If you need to partition and manage standard HFS+ volumes, you’ll find detailed instructions in the Rocket Yard guide: How to Use macOS Sierra Disk Utility to Partition, Erase Drives.

What Are Containers?
Containers are a new abstract used in the APFS system to define a storage system that can share available free space among one or more volumes. Apple calls this Space Sharing. It allows volumes that are within a common container to grow or shrink as needed, without any type of repartitioning.

Containers, then, define a block of space on a physical drive that will be assigned to and used by volumes you create in the container. Volumes you create in a container can have a minimum size and a maximum size, but the actual amount of space they use is dynamically assigned from the container’s free space, as each volume within the container needs the space.

The selected drive shows that it contains two containers of different sizes. The smaller container houses a single volume, and the larger container holds two volumes. Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

Use Disk Utility to Create an APFS Container
Containers are only supported on drives formatted with APFS. You can format a drive or convert an HFS+ drive to APFS using the version of Disk Utility found in macOS High Sierra or later.

APFS was designed primarily for use with SSDs, though it should also work with standard hard drives. But before you decide to format a hard drive to use APFS, you may want to read: Using APFS On HDDs …And Why You Might Not Want To. At the moment, Apple doesn’t support APFS being used on Fusion drives.

Before you begin this process, take a moment to make sure you have a current backup of the information on your Mac, and that the drive used for backups isn’t one of the drives that will be involved in any of the processes we will be performing. The best way to do that is to eject the backup drive and, if possible, disconnect it from your Mac.

With your backups current, you’re ready to explore the APFS file system, including working with containers and volumes.

Launch Disk Utility, located at /Applications/Utilities.

In the Disk Utility toolbar, click on the View button and select Show All Devices. You can also use the View menu to perform the same task.

To convert an HFS+ volume to an APFS volume, select the HFS+ volume on the Disk Utility sidebar. (HFS+ volumes appear just below the physical drives in the sidebar.) Once selected, choose Convert to APFS from Disk Utility’s Edit menu. A sheet will drop down asking if you would like to convert the drive to APFS. Converting to APFS shouldn’t cause data loss on the selected drive, but it’s a good idea to make sure the data on the drive has been backed up first. When you’re ready, click the Convert button.

Disk Utility being used to convert the existing Video volume to APFS. Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

To format a drive in APFS, select the drive in Disk Utility’s sidebar. Select Erase from the toolbar or from the Edit menu. Provide a name, and then select one of the APFS formats from the Format dropdown menu. Formatting a drive will erase all of the data it contains, so make sure you have a backup of the data, if needed, before proceeding. When you’re ready, click the Erase button.

Disk Utility will create an APFS container, along with a single volume within the container.

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