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Archive for the ‘How Tos’ Category

by Tom Nelson

With each release of the Mac OS, new features are added, older features may be updated, and in some cases, removed or replaced. Over the course of a few OS updates, it’s easy for some very useful system features to be forgotten. That’s why we’re going to take a look at 10 features that don’t get as much use as we think they should.

1) Tabbing Between Fields and Control Elements
The tab key can get quite a workout on the Mac. Besides its obvious use in text editors and word processors to move the cursor a predefined distance, it’s used on the Mac to move between fields in various apps. This makes the tab key extremely helpful when filling in an online form, letting you move quickly to the next field to enter information, or to the next list item to make a selection.

Further Reading: OWC Announces Cutting-edge Thunderbolt 3 Products at CES 2018

Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

You may have noticed when filling in forms that the tab key will jump past dropdown menus and other types of controls used in forms and dialog boxes. You can make the tab key stop at just about any type of user interface element with this small change:

Launch System Preferences and select the Keyboard preference pane.

Select the Shortcuts button at the top of the Keyboard window.

Near the bottom you’ll find options for Full Keyboard Access. The default is to have the tab key only move between text boxes and lists. You can change the setting to have the tab key move between all controls.

You can also change the tab key behavior on the fly, without returning to the System Preferences, by using the keyboard shortcut Control + F7 to toggle between the two options.

2) New Folder With Selection
This useful Finder feature has been around since OS X Lion, but is still often overlooked when it comes to file management and organization. As long as you select two or more files, you can have the Finder automatically create a new folder and move the selected items into the folder for you.

Open a Finder window and navigate to the files you would like to have placed in a new folder. Select the files; remember you must select at least two files (or folders) for this trick to work.

Right-click or control-click on one of the selected items, and then choose New Folder with Selection (X Items) from the popup menu. The X in the menu name will be replaced with the number of items you actually selected.

You can also select multiple items in the Finder and from the File menu select New Folder with Selection (X Items).

3) Use a Document’s Icon to Move a File or Duplicate a File (Proxy Icon)
The proxy icon is the thumbnail of a document icon that appears in the title bar of the document window of most Mac apps, usually at the top center of the window. It’s called a proxy icon because it’s a stand-in for the actual icon of the document you’re working on.

The proxy icon is more than just a bit of eye candy. It can be used just like the document’s real icon, which means you can:

Drag the proxy icon anywhere on your Mac to create an alias to the original file at the new location.

Option + drag to create a copy of the document at the location you drag the proxy icon to.

Press command or control for a pop-down menu that shows the path to the document.

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by Coyote Moon, Inc.

If you’ll forgive us for bragging a little, our resident Mac expert, Tom Nelson, recently took the top spot in MacSales.com’s Year in Review: The 10 Most Popular Rocket Yard Posts of 2017. As a matter of fact, he nabbed the 3rd, 4th, and 5th spots, too.

Tom was also awarded two of the five Editor’s Picks. We may have to enlarge our offices, so his swelled head can fit through the doors and halls. Actually, Tom is the modest type, so we have to toot his horn for him, and we’re happy to do it.

Here’s the original article:

Year in Review: The 10 Most Popular Rocket Yard Posts of 2017
Author:

The year 2017 was a big one for tech enthusiasts. New gear and software news – both good and not-so-good – dominated the headlines.

So which news articles and tech tips most caught the interest of Rocket Yard readers? These are the top 10 most read articles of the year!

1) Common Problems During and After macOS High Sierra Installation

The beautiful default wallpaper of High Sierra
Despite going through the typical beta process, macOS 10.13 High Sierra didn’t quite have all the kinks worked out upon release. We outlined some of the most common issues that users faced during and after macOS High Sierra installation.


2) Translating Apple’s New High Sierra & APFS Compatibility Document

Apple File System
With macOS High Sierra came the much-hyped Apple File System, or simply APFS. But this confused both beginner and some seasoned Mac users alike. The Rocket Yard took the opportunity to translate Apple’s High Sierra & APFS compatibility document.


3) Tech Tip: How to Use Boot Camp on an External Drive

Three available tasks for Boot Camp Assistant
As author Tom Nelson wrote “Installing Windows on an external drive would be a great solution to the problem of available space, but as we said, Boot Camp and Windows impose a restriction on installing to an external drive – or do they?” Check out the article to find out more!


4) How to Combine Multiple Photos Libraries Into a Single Library


Managing multiple Photos libraries is a common problem among Mac users. We wanted to create a single guide to help users combine all of those libraries into a single library. See how it’s done inside.


5) macOS 101: What High Sierra Broke and How to Fix It


With almost any new operating system, new problems seem to crop up upon install and things just don’t work like they used to. We outlined some of the most reported issues caused by High Sierra and how to fix them. Our readers also commented with problems of their own.


The Rest of the Best:

6) Understanding macOS Server Part 1: Background and Setup

7) Create a Bootable macOS High Sierra Install Drive with DiskMaker X 7

8) Apps With Known High Sierra Compatibility Issues

9) Unboxing and Teardown of the 2017 27-inch iMac with Retina 5K

10) Three Ways to Remotely Access and Control a Mac


Editor’s Picks: 

 OWC Tears Down the iMac Pro, Announces Future Memory Upgrade Programs

 Commentary: Mac Pro Users Spoke and Apple Listened

 Rocket Yard Testing Lab: Battle of the Mac Browsers (And One Beta)

 Data Privacy Day: Keep Your Data Safe From Prying Eyes with FileVault

• Quick Tip: View All Mac OS Terminal Commands and What They Do

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by Tom Nelson

Macs have been at the center of many creative endeavors since the first Mac took the stage at De Anza College in 1984, at its official unveiling. Since then, the Mac community has been finding new and amazing uses for their Macs. It’s no wonder, then, that you’re likely to find a Mac taking center stage in many professional and home-based film and video studios.

There are a number of Mac models used in home and pro studio work, but we’re going to take a look at two popular desktop models: 2011 and later iMacs, and 2010 and later Mac Pros. We chose these two model families because of their popularity, cost, and ability to be upgraded with RAM, storage, peripherals, and software that can turn them into film and video editing machines.

If you’re ready to hit the road to Sundance, let’s get started outfitting your Mac for its new editing role.

Upgrading RAM in an iMac
For the most part, 2011 and later iMacs have memory that can be upgraded by the end user. There are some exceptions, such as the 2014 through 2016 21.5-inch iMacs, which made use of RAM soldered directly to the motherboard, thus preventing a viable upgrade path. But the rest of the iMac family all has some method that allows you to increase the amount of RAM installed.

Increasing the RAM is going to allow your Mac to better function as an editing platform. Most editing applications are able to make use of all of the RAM you make available to them, increasing their performance, reducing rendering times, or just making the editing process a simpler one.

If you’re wondering how much RAM you need, my answer is all that you can afford. If you can max out your RAM, you’ll likely see a nice improvement; at a minimum for small HD-based projects, 16 GB is a good start. If your editing work involves multiple layers, multiple cameras, or 4K and larger projects, then I suggest 32 GB as a minimum, which is more likely to help with performance.

That leaves the 2017 21.5-inch iMac and 2017 27-inch iMac, which don’t have memory modules that are accessible from the outside, but do have internal memory slots that can be upgraded, though with a degree of difficulty best left to advanced DIYers.

If you’re considering the new 2017 iMac Pro as an editing machine, take a look at the OWC tear down of the 2017 iMac Pro, which reveals that the RAM can be upgraded, though again, not easily.

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by Tom Nelson

Last week, we started our exploration of Finder customization by looking at the Icon and List view options. If you would like to review the first installment, you’ll find it in the Rocket Yard article: Mac 101: Customizing Finder Views, Part 1.

For Part 2 of our series on customizing the Finder, we’re going to look at the two remaining views: Column and Cover Flow.

Column View
Column view is actually a holdover from NeXTstep, the operating system developed by NeXT Computer. NeXT was purchased by Apple in 1997, giving Apple access to the NeXTstep system, as well as marking the return of Steve Jobs to Apple.

Column view was the default view for the file system interface in NeXTstep. It featured a hierarchical view of the file system organized into columns, with each column being part of the path to the file object in question.

You can select Column view by using the highlighted toolbar button shown above. Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

Column view in the Mac OS has seen a few changes over time, but one look and it’s easy to see the NeXTstep influence.

You can set the current Finder window to display in Column view by selecting the Column view button in the Finder toolbar (it looks like a button with three blank columns), or by selecting View, as Columns from the Finder menu. Lastly, you can use the keyboard shortcut Command + 3.

Column view provides a hierarchical view of the file system, starting at the selected entry point, which can be any folder you open in a Finder window, and then proceeding through each subfolder until you find the file object you’re looking for. The content of each folder you open is displayed within its own column, building a pathway map starting at the entry point on the left, to the subsequent file object on the right.

Column Options
The available column options are few, but they allow you to customize the view to suit your needs. To make changes to the Column view options, select View, Show View Options from the Finder menu bar, or press Command + J on your keyboard.

You can use the Column View option to include a preview column that allows you to see the content of a selected file in a thumbnail view. Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

The view options window will open, displaying the following options:

Always open in column view: When selected, the current folder will always be displayed using Column view.

Browse in column view: When selected, the Finder will open any subfolder within the current folder using Column view. This allows you to browse through the folder hierarchy and retain the same Column view.

Arrange By: This dropdown menu allows you to select the criteria to be used in arranging the file objects within the Column view. A number of choices are available, including by name; alphanumerically by object name; by kind; similar items together; image, music, folders, and more. You can also choose by size, by tags, and by various date-related criteria.

Sort By: This dropdown menu is used to set the sorting options within the Arrange By selection. For example, if you select Arrange by Kind, then within the list of each kind (images, movies, applications, folders) you would find the items sorted by the selected method. Sort By options include Name, Kind, Date Last Opened, Date Added, Date Modified, Date Created, Size, and Tags.

Text size: The dropdown menu allows you to select a text size to use for the object names.

Show icons: Allows the display of thumbnail icons preceding each item. This can be helpful in differentiating one object type from another, say a folder from a file.

Show icon preview: Some file types have the ability to display a thumbnail view of the file’s content. This can be a small picture in the case of an image file, a thumbnail view of a text document, essentially any file type supported by the Quick Look technology in the OS.

Show preview column: This option allows the last column in the Column view to be used to show a Quick Look of the selected object’s content, as well as information about the object, such as document size, creation and modification dates, and any associated tags. The actual information displayed is dependent on the file object type.

The Best Use for Column View
Column view is one of the better views for using when you need to work directly with file objects, such as files and folders. Column view makes it easy to organize and move files around, as long as the location you want to move or copy a file to is present on the Column hierarchy; then it’s an easy task to drag and drop file objects about. If the location you’re looking for isn’t in the current Column view, you can open a second Finder window and drag between them.

Tip: Columns are dynamically resized to try to best fit the path into the Finder window. As a result, names within a column can become truncated. Hover the cursor over a truncated name; after a moment, the name will be displayed in its entirety.

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by Tom Nelson

The Finder is the operating system’s default file manager for viewing and working with the Mac’s filing system. It allows us to easily see and work with the hierarchical organizational structure inherent in our Macs. To help us easily find, access, and organize our files, the Finder offers four different methods of viewing the filing system.

In these two guides, we’re going to look at each of the four viewing options: Icon, List, Column, and Cover Flow; the viewing options that are available for each view, and some of the quirks and characteristics of each.

We’ll start with Icon and List view, two of the most often used views. In Customizing Finder Views: Part 2, we’ll look at the ins and outs of Column and Cover Flow views.

Icon View
To set the current Finder window to display items as icons, select Icon from the window’s toolbar; it’s the first button in the View section of the toolbar. You can also select View, As Icons from the Finder menu bar.

You can select Icon view directly from the toolbar using the Icon view button outlined in red. Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

Icon view is the default Finder view, and is characterized by the use of icons to represent the items contained within a folder, usually files and other folders although other item types could be present, such as various types of links.

The icons can be plain default images supplied by the operating system, or custom icons created by an app developer or the end user to bring a bit of color and style to the desktop.

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by Tom Nelson

It’s that time of year, when visions of sugar plum fairies bringing us new Macs dance through our heads. Or more likely, you’re considering buying a new Mac to replace an older model, or to give as a gift to a family member. Times being a little tight, you have your eye on one of the base models but you may be able to swing at least one upgrade to the Mac: a faster processor, more RAM, larger or faster (or both) storage, or a better GPU, but which upgrade should you choose?

The answer depends on which Mac model you’re considering, and how you intend to use it.

Before we get too far ahead of ourselves, I want to point out that although we’re talking about buying a new Mac, the same considerations can be in play for purchasing a used Mac, or for upgrading an existing Mac. So, if you fall into any of these categories, read on. And please add a comment or two at the bottom; it’s always nice to hear what upgrades would be your most likely choices.

Are Faster CPUs a Good Idea?
Depends. You’re going to hear that a lot, but really, it depends not only on which Mac model you’re considering, but how you will use it. If you’re using one of the MacBook models, remember that increasing processor performance is likely to negatively affect overall battery runtime, while with desktop Macs, power usage isn’t as much of a concern. 

Normally, I’m personally not inclined to spend upgrade money on processor speed. When the processor upgrade only involves a faster clocked processor of the same CPU family, I’m not impressed. As an example, consider a 15-inch MacBook Pro offered with a 2.9 GHz quad-core i7 processor. For $200.00 extra, a 3.1 GHz quad-core i7 processor is available as an upgrade.

Because they’re of the same processor family with the same number of cores, I wouldn’t expect much improvement in performance. This assumption is born out when comparing performance benchmarks with Geekbench scores that show only a bit more than a 3% increase in single-core results, and even less of an improvement in multi-core results.

On the other hand, CPU upgrades that cross processor model families or add additional cores may be worthwhile, depending on how you use your Mac.

Once again, an example: a 27-inch Retina 5K iMac with a 3.5 GHz quad-core i5 processor vs. the same iMac with a 4.2 GHz quad-core i7 processor. This $300 upgrade not only changes the processor family from an i5 to an i7, it adds the ability to run two threads concurrently on each core, giving it an 11.9 percent single-core performance advantage, and a 30% multi-core performance increase. That’s a pretty good performance improvement for a $300 investment, provided you have a use for the extra horsepower and run apps that take advantage of multi-core processing.

For the most part, processor upgrades are limited to time of purchase. The current exception is 2012 and earlier Mac Pro models, where it’s possible to replace the processor with a faster model. Replacement isn’t simple, but it can be done. If you’re considering this route, look for processors with additional cores and not just a faster clock rate.

Upgrading CPUs can be worthwhile if you’re routinely using your Mac for number crunching, media editing, or other processor-intensive tasks. If your primary uses are email, Internet browsing, and common workplace and educational tasks, maybe not so much.

RAM Upgrades
It used to be that RAM upgrades were one of the first upgrades users performed after receiving their new Macs. In many cases, it was a lot less expensive to buy RAM from MacSales.com and install the upgrade yourself, than to buy directly from Apple at the time of purchase.

While you can still upgrade the RAM in some iMac models and the current (2013) Mac Pro, the rest of the Mac lineup uses RAM that is soldered to the computer motherboard, thus preventing user upgrades. This means you have to decide at the time of purchase how much RAM you wish to have both now and in the future.

Except for the base model Mac mini, which has only 4 GB of RAM, all other Mac models come equipped with at least 8 GB. Depending on the model, upgrades to 16 GB, 32 GB, 64 GB, or 128 GB are offered at time of purchase.

If the Mac model you’re considering doesn’t offer user upgradable RAM then it may be a very good idea to consider using some of your upgrade budget on RAM at the time of purchase.

The Mac OS does a pretty great job of managing RAM. Using techniques like compression, the Mac can squeeze quite a bit of performance out of available RAM. Adding more RAM will allow you to run more apps concurrently, allow RAM-intensive apps to perform better, or both, letting you run apps that need a lot of RAM space without having to close all of your other apps.

Upgrading RAM to 16 GB at the time of purchase for those Macs that don’t allow users to upgrade RAM would be a smart move. It would help to maximize performance now as well as extend the usable lifetime of the Mac.

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by Tom Nelson

Installing a new version of the macOS can cause a bit of trepidation. Will all my older apps work? Are there any serious bugs in the new OS? Will my peripherals continue to work, including that wide-format LaserJet from the 90s that hasn’t had any driver updates since the millennium, but continues to be my go-to workhorse for tabloid printing?

You get the idea; upgrading to a new OS can have unexpected consequences that may end up with you wishing you never updated to begin with. And when those consequences are severe enough, you may decide to try to downgrade to one of the earlier versions of the Mac OS.

With the right preliminary preparations in place before you perform an upgrade, downgrading can be fairly easy, though a bit time consuming. Without the proper preparations, downgrading can be difficult, to say the least.

Before you attempt any downgrade, you should ensure you have a backup of your Mac as it currently exists, so you can return to the current state should anything cause the downgrade to fail, or needed files not to work with the older version of the OS.

Downgrade to a Previous Version of macOS When You Prepared Properly
Preparing properly is a two-step process. In general, you need to have a backup of your Mac as it existed before you started the upgrade process; you may also need to have a bootable copy of the version of the macOS installer you wish to downgrade to.

You’ll need the bootable OS installer if you’re downgrading from a macOS version that has an incompatible file system installed. An example would be downgrading from macOS High Sierrathat was installed on an APFS formatted drive to a version of the OS that doesn’t support APFS.

If you’re downgrading and both the currently installed OS and the one you’re moving back to both use the same file system, then you may only need to make use of your backup files.

Downgrade Using Just Time Machine
In this example, you’re going to make use of your Time Machine backup to downgrade from macOS High Sierra to macOS Sierra. In this example, macOS High Sierra was installed on a hard drive that was not converted to APFS, allowing you to use this simple method to downgrade.

Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

To use this method, you’ll need to restart your Mac from the Recovery HD and restore your Mac from a selected Time Machine backup. What you should end up with is a Mac that’s in the exact state it was in before the upgrade.

Warning: Files you created after the upgrade point will not be restored. You may want to make copies of any important files you may need on an external device, such as a flash drive or an external drive.

From the Apple menu, select Restart.

After your Mac’s display goes blank, hold down the command + R keys. Continue to hold the two keys down until you see the Apple logo appear.

The macOS Utilities window will open. Select Restore From Time Machine Backup, and then click the Continue button.

The Restore From Time Machine window will display a few tidbits about what is about to occur. Click the Continue button.

A list of drives containing Time Machine backups will be displayed. Select your Time Machine backup drive from the list, and then click Continue.

A list of backups will be displayed, organized by date and the version of the Mac OS contained within the backup. Select the last backup for the version of the macOS you wish to downgrade to, and then click Continue.

The Restore From Time Machine Backup will begin. This process can take some time; once it’s completed, your Mac will restart.

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by Tom Nelson

macOS High Sierra brings with it a new filing system known as APFS (Apple File System). APFS replaces HFS+ (Hierarchical File System Plus), and offers a new, modern file system that is optimized for use with SSDs (Solid State Drives), while still being usable on hard drives and, in the near future, even on tiered storage systems such as Apple’s Fusion drive.

Image courtesy of Apple

As part of the upgrade process, the macOS High Sierra installer will automatically convert an SSD to the new APFS. The conversion process leaves the drive’s data intact, or at least it’s supposed to; be sure you have a recent backup before upgrading, just in case. At the time of this writing, the automatic conversion process is limited to internal SSDs. External SSDs being used as startup drives seem to be left with their original file system, with no conversion to APFS occurring. However, this could change with the next update to macOS High Sierra, as it seems Apple is committed to growing APFS usage across all Apple devices.

Although the conversion to APFS will happen automatically if your Mac startup drive meets the criteria, specifically, an SSD occupying a connection internally to your Mac, you can choose not to use APFS and force the installation to bypass the conversion process, leaving your startup drive in the older HFS+ format.

How to Prevent Automatic Conversion to APFS
There are a couple of strategies you can use to prevent the upgrade to APFS and retain the older HFS+ formatting:

Use an external drive: You can choose an external drive as the target for the macOS High Sierra upgrade. This will allow you to retain the current formatting on the external. Once the upgrade is complete, you can clone the external drive back to your normal internal startup drive. Carbon Copy Cloner and SuperDuper are two popular apps for creating clones. You could use Disk Utility’s Restore feature to create your clone as well.

Use startosinstall: macOS High Sierra includes a command line tool hidden away within the installer that can be used to control the conversion to APFS. By using this tool, you can tell the installer not to convert to APFS during the installation process.

While either method will work, using the startosinstall utility is the easiest and quickest process. It allows you to perform the macOS High Sierra upgrade without any conversion to APFS. It also allows you to skip the additional step and save the additional time needed to make a clone, as required in the external drive method.

Using Startosinstall to Prevent Conversion to APFS
Startosinstall is included as part of the macOS High Sierra installer. If you downloaded the installer from the Mac App Store, you’re all set. If you happen to have the installer open, waiting for you to start the macOS High Sierra install process, simply quit the installer (Command + Q). You need to invoke the installer from the Terminal command line for the option to not install APFS to be available.

Before you begin, make sure you have a recent backup of all the data on your current startup drive and the target drive for the installation (if they’re different). Better to be safe than sorry.

Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

Startosinstall has a number of options for automating the installation process. This includes the APFS option, which can be used to prevent the conversion to APFS, or for that matter, to force the conversion, making it a bit easier to upgrade an external SSD to macOS High Sierra should you decide you want to use APFS.

When you’re ready, launch Terminal, located at /Applications/Utilities/.

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by Tom Nelson

macOS High Sierra contains many new features and capabilities, but APFS (Apple File System) is certainly one of the biggest changes. Changing the primary file system used by the Mac, or for that matter, any computer system is a big deal. Apple has only changed the default Mac file system twice in its 33-year history.

Macintosh File System (MFS) was the original file system introduced along with the Macintosh in January 1984. It was designed to meet the demanding needs of a 400 MB floppy disk. The Hierarchical File System (HFS) followed in September 1985, and the last file system upgrade was Hierarchical File System Plus (HFS+), which was released with Mac OS 8.1 in January 1998.

APFS and Time Machine, Boot Camp, and File Vault
While there have been some minor upgrades to HFS+ over the years, the Mac’s file system has stayed pretty much the same since 1998. That makes the new APFS file system a big deal. And like any big deal, there’s a lot to understand about how APFS will work with existing Mac apps and services, including Time Machine, Boot Camp, and File Vault.

We’re going to primarily look at these three Apple-provided apps and services, but third-party apps may also be affected by the change to APFS. It’s a good idea to check any file system utility you may be using for APFS compatibility.

Time Machine
In its current incarnation, the Time Machine app is mostly compatible with APFS; that is, you can back up an APFS formatted drive using Time Machine, as well as restore files from a Time Machine backup to an APFS formatted drive. However, there are some very important caveats that Time Machine users should be aware of.

Time Machine drives must be formatted in HFS+. Time Machine uses the magic of hard links, a feature that HFS+ file systems have to catalog and keep track of which files in a backup make up the current version of an app, document, or directory. Hard links are just one of three types of file linking that HFS+ supports, the others being symbolic links and aliases.

Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

APFS, on the other hand, does not support hard links. When you convert an HFS+ formatted volume to APFS, any hard links found during the conversion process are automatically changed to symbolic links, thus breaking your Time Machine backup into a collection of almost useless files. Luckily, installing macOS High Sierra won’t automatically convert Time Machine drives to APFS, but it’s possible to change the drive’s format to APFS from within Disk Utility or via the Terminal app. Resist the temptation to go all APFS; Time Machine will not cooperate with you.

If you do accidentally convert a Time Machine drive to APFS, the Time Machine app will no longer recognize the drive as a backup drive. If you select the old Time Machine drive within the Time Machine app as a backup destination, you’ll be confronted with an option to erase all of the content on the selected drive and reformat it as HFS+. (Actually, Time Machine will just warn you that it must first erase the destination drive, but the reason is because the drive has an incompatible format.)

Until Apple releases a new version of Time Machine that makes use of the APFS feature set, such as snapshots to replace file linking, your Time Machine backup must remain formatted as HFS+.

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by Tom Nelson

One of the niceties in the Mac OS is the ability of the system to display how your storage space is being used. Originally introduced in OS X Lion as part of a feature upgrade to the System Information app, the Storage tab displays how much free space is available on each disk attached to your Mac, as well as how a disk’s storage is being used, by category.

If you’re not sure how to find the categories, click the Apple logo in the menu bar in the Finder, select About This Mac from the dropdown menu, and then click the Storage tab. Mouse over a color bar, and a text balloon will pop up, telling you what the category is and how much disk space it’s using.

The categories change as new versions of the OS are released, but the current categories include System files, Documents, Apps, iTunes, Backups, Other, Audio, Music Creation, Photos, Movies, and Purgeable space.

The Other category, shown here in gray, shows my startup drive (Casey) with a small percentage of Other files, while my data drive (Casey Cat) contains nothing but Other file types. Screen shot © Coyote Moon, Inc.

Purgeable space is more or less unique to the Mac; you can find out more about it in the Rocket Yard Guide: What is Purgeable Space in macOS? The next category that seems to get a lot of attention is Other. So, just what is included in Other?

That’s a common question, one you may often ask yourself, especially when you need to free up space when your drive starts to fill up. When that happens, I think most of us tend to look at the Other category and think, there’s a lot of space being used by Other. If I don’t know what it is, and the system doesn’t seem to know either, then why can’t I just delete those files?

What’s in the Other Category
The type of files the operating system assigns to the Other category in the Storage display changes a bit from OS version to OS version, but there was a big shakeup in storage management when Apple introduced macOS Sierra, which caused the Other category to become better defined.

Because of the changes, we’re going to provide two lists for the type of files that are assigned to the Other category: pre macOS (OS X) and post macOS.

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